During 1944, in the wake of the invasion of Normandy and the infiltration into National Socialist Europe, soldiers of the United States Army were provided with a booklet to peruse in preparation of D-Day+. Entitled, A Pocket Guide to France, this document helped illustrate the cultural and social particulars of the French, especially concerning a wartime France.
Coca Cola has been an established brand for more than a century and is recognised world over. There is a market for the brand in every country, except for Cuba and North Korea. It has a number of much-loved subsidiary products for sale in addition to its flagship enterprise. It may be surprising to learn, however, that for one of them, its origins are located in a dark period of history. This is the overview of Fanta and its National Socialist founding.
Within the United Kingdom, there are rules and stipulations in place which govern the manner in which postage stamps are designed and distributed. Notably, only the Royal Family can appear on postage stamps. These guidelines also extend to the overseas territories including the Commonwealth. However, there was one exception to this ruling which caused certain amount of embarrassment.
From their small-town American routes, these major US franchises and fast food chains have developed into international conglomerates, serving millions every day. Detailed below are some of the more recognisable and globally celebrated fast food restaurants, including their brief histories and original headquarters.
With the amount of money spent by governments on military projects and tactical systems, it stands to reason that the effectiveness of such endeavours is mixed. With most being fit for purpose in certain respects, there are still others that failed spectacularly, costing their governments hugely. There are a number of projects of especial note, many of them being utterly bizarre and of a fantastical nature.
With rationing a prominent feature of the Second World War, it was certainly not absent during the First World War. With shipping and international trade threatened by the U-boat menace and a crippling economic situation, many families had to cope with the rigors of providing for both the family and the frontline during increasingly austere times.
Prowling the streets of the East End, mystery and intrigue has surrounded the identity of Jack the Ripper. Celebrated as the most infamous serial killer in history, discovering his identity has been inconclusive, until recently. The latest in DNA evidence uncovered might now answer this all important question. Rather than the usual suspects, including the Queen’s surgeon, Sir William Gull, or artist, Walter Sickert, evidence suggests that the murders were committed by an anomalous Polish mental asylum inmate, Aaron Kosminski.
Singing them in the playground, reciting them to one’s children and recalling them in popular culture, it is hard to fathom the apparently dark origins of many of our favourite and most renowned nursery rhymes. From Baa, Baa, Black Sheep to Three Blind Mice, there are a number of children’s songs which are rooted in history and are fraught with political and ideological dialogue.
Incredibly, clothing store giant, Zara, has made an unbelievable mistake in producing and selling children’s clothing with apparently anti-Semitic imagery and connotations. The design, intended as a child’s striped sheriff motif t-shirt, has been lauded as a very distasteful recounting of the atrocities committed during the Holocaust.
Compared with today, parents of the 1950s had an even tougher time parenting their children. The threat of nuclear destruction, a burgeoning urban class and a swath of dubious advice available helped reinforce improper methods for bringing up one’s offspring. Advertisements and advice available at the time can be seen as quite inappropriate.
In light of new information recovered from analysis conducted on the keel of the stricken wreck, researchers have hypothesised that regardless of the iceberg which ultimately caused her sinking, the Titanic was destined for destruction. Structural weakness in its construction might have made it vulnerable in the long term to heavy weather
Whilst the majority of people are aware of Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler’s first published works condoning hatred and discrimination, particularly against those of Jewish faith, there is little knowledge concerning the attitudes of the future leader of National Socialist Germany prior to his entry into right-wing politics and the NSDAP. However, evidence has surfaced regarding his fanatical views dated 1919 in the form of a letter. It is especially telling, considering his viewpoints on settling the ‘Jewish question’ through segregation and expulsion appear more than twenty years before the ‘Final Solution’.
In a startling new collection, previously undisclosed to the public, photographs and charts chronicling German air raids on Britain during the First World War are among dozens of other documents released from the archives held by the Imperial War Museum, London. The collection is being revealed within a new book, Mapping the First World War, by Dr Peter Chasseaud, a historian of military cartography. In his book, he demonstrates the importance of maps in helping to understand the development of aerial combat during this period in history.
National socialist propaganda, over the course of the entire Third Reich Germania, was a matter of glorifying and honouring the First World War, attributing blame for the German defeat on ‘defeatists’, ‘pacifists’ and ‘Untermenschen’. The glorious leader himself, the Führer, winner of the Iron Cross, First Class, was ever portrayed as a war hero, a staunch believer of the ‘stab in the back’ and an advocate of aggressive expansion through warfare. However, it is surprising perhaps to learn that before the beginning of the First World War, in the year of 1913, Adolf Hitler was arrested for dodging the Austrian military draft.
Spying and espionage has been at the heart of the awe and mystique that surrounds histories of the Cold War between the Western Powers and USSR. Underwater subterfuge occurred on both sides. The USA, however, had especially sophisticated means to deal counter-spying measures as well as implement its own espionage missions. When an advanced Soviet submarine sank in the Pacific Ocean in 1968, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) instigated a covert mission to salvage the lost vessel; using an unassuming barge ship to locate, recover and house the wrecked sub.
For many individuals in history, the fear of death often coincided with their fear of being buried alive. Modern day technology and medical expertise has contributed significantly towards pathological examinations. However, before better improved medical methods were improvised, there was often much difficulty in proper diagnosis. With such naivety came an associated fear of being buried alive. As unlikely as it might appear, there were cases in history of people being buried alive.
There is much written and documented concerning Hitler’s terror weapons, alleged space programme and other recurring myths (including the secret underground bunkers in the Antarctic). One of the more audacious attempts of wartime German policy was its attempt to assassinate Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. Weapon of choice? An exploding bar of chocolate.
Studies conducted by both natural historians and scientists alike have often revealed fascinating and often peculiar aspects of wildlife behaviour. From the original ill-fated Captain Scott polar expedition, Dr George Murray Levick arrived at Ridley Beach, Cape Adare, Victoria Land (the north westernmost point of the Ross Sea in Antarctica), on 13 February 1911. Dr Levick and his team remained to study the area for eleven months through both the following winter and summer, until they were retrieved by Terra Nova on 3 January 1912. After another ten-day sledging trip from 4–14 October 1911, Dr Levick spent much of their departure in the midst of the Adélie penguin colony, now known to be the largest in the world for this species, taking photographs as well as detailed notes. His findings and subsequent recording provide naturalist with startling insights into the lives of one particular species of penguin, most notably their less than conventional sexual habits and social structure.
Following more than 66 years since they were published, the thoughts, fears and naiveties of a teenage girl were revealed to the world. With more than 30 million copies sold, The Diary of a Young Girl has been translated into 67 languages and still holds a unique position in the international consciousness, offering us a glimpse into everyday life under Nazi occupation and under threat of extermination. The following article reveals a number of startling intricacies and little known facts concerning Anne Frank and the most widely read diary in history.
More than a century after the Titanic disaster and with particular reference to the recent Costa Concordia episode, the media has come to define such high-profile disasters as among the most disastrous in modern times. However, there are five events in which death totals exceeded even those of the Titanic, indeed, some 9,000 perished in the destruction of the Wilhelm Gustloff in 1945.